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EMT NOTES

Airway Management-Miscellaneous Notes

  • epiglottis- leaf shaped, above larynx

  • mediastinum contains esophagus

  • ventilation-physical act of moving air in and out of lungs

  • tidal volume-volume of air that moes into/out of lungs in one breath (about 500mL in healthy adult)
  • dead space- volume of air in lungs that is not perfused (oxygen not absorbed by alveoli)
  • minute volume-(tidal vol.-dead space)*respiratory rate
  • shallow breathing decreases minute volume

  • exhalation is passive and caused by an increase in intrathoracic pressure

  • hypoxic drive-influencd by low blood oxygen levels

  • external respiration-exchanging O2 and CO2 between alveoli and blood of capillaries (at level of lungs/alveoli)
  • internal respiration-gas exchange in cells 

  • shallow breathing may also require assisted ventilation

  • most significant suctioning complication is hypoxia due to prolonged suctioning

  • if tidal vol. is low, give O2 with bag valve mask, NOT place patient in recovery position

  • muscles can survive longer than organs without O2

  • hypercarbia- excess CO2 in blood 

  • Avg. PSI in O2 tank=2,000

  • NPA (Naso-Pharyngeal Airway) contraindication- facial/head trauma

  • ensure reservoir bag is fully inflated before applying nonrebreather mask

  • removing OPA (Oral-Pharyngeal Airway):
    • if patient is gagging-remove airway, then roll on side
    • if patient is vomiting- roll on side, then remove airway

  • if there is only one person on scene, mouth to mask method is preferred to BVM (bag-valve mask)
    • this is because it is difficult for one person to do the bag holding and keep the clamp tight

  • if air is escaping when airing stoma-seal nose and mouth
  • remove dentures if they become loose while giving air

  • infant CPR/choking: back blows, THEN chest thrusts

  • if pediatric patient removes non-rebreather, utilize blow-by O2 with paper cup